Despite many positive developments in South Africa (SA), the education system and educational outcome face many challenges and require further improvement. Local teachers in most of the primary schools in Tanzania lack training in special needs education for children with developmental disability. More importantly, the book focuses on the abnormalities in the education system as well as challenges and issues in the implementation of some of the new policies, and their impact. I am going to talk about the experience in a Kenyan primary school where I teach because most of these challenges are contextual. Nairobi: KLB. Primary Education English Handbook. There is limited access to resources attributed to the large enrollments, key among them are textbooks. when introducing ICT in the classrooms. (2004). “While we are talking of the ratio of 1 is to 35 and 1 is to 41 we are the biggest in terms of class sizes. challenges faced by teachers who teach children with developmental disability and how they try to overcome these challenges. 2:13. doi: 10.3389/feduc.2017.00013, Received: 24 November 2016; Accepted: 11 April 2017; Published: 05 May 2017. A case in point is the comprehension passage in the class three English text books which has used the English expressions, “as white as snow.” This expression is difficult for learners to relate to since there is no experience of snow in the Kenyan context. This include absenteeism from school because of lack of school necessities, taking care of the sibling as parents look for food and even doing petty jobs to supplement on the family income. Their view of the profession and their role in it is shaped by these motivations, as well as by the context in which they begin their work. doi:10.1080/09500781003678985. Despite the daily challenges I faced as an English teacher in South Africa, the work was extremely gratifying. South African Schools Keshnee Padayachee University of South Africa, P.O. The introduction of free primary education witnessed an influx of learners in the primary schools thus increasing the class size (Muchiri, 2009). Understanding and Implementing Reading First Initiatives: The Changing Role of Administrators. c. KIE. analyze teachers’ perceptions of the challenges faced in using ICT tools in classrooms. doi: 10.2167/le684.0. This comes a day after the release of the Teaching Learning International Survey (Talis) which surveyed 260 000 teachers from across the world on their working conditions and the learning environment. This volume sets out the challenges facing the education system in South Africa, such as poor school infrastructure, ... Farm Schools in South Africa: issues and challenges. This book is about challenges and issues facing the school system of South Africa; specifically the harsh realities facing schools. |, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY), Eregi Teachers Training College, Maragoli, Western, Kenya. J. Educ. (2012). Therefore, teaching in South Africa must become a profession of preference and pride as opposed to the present very lackadaisical attitude. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). 1, 390–395. This paper has attempted to illustrate the challenges faced by ESL teachers in my primary school which could be generalized to other East African contexts with similar settings where English is taught as a second or third language. The challenges of handling large classes compounded by the acute shortage of teachers puts a strain on the teachers’ ability to provide quality language work to the learners because the teacher–learner ratio is not proportional. challenges and issues facing the education system in south africa Nov 25, 2020 Posted By John Grisham Media Publishing TEXT ID 6653cc4c Online PDF Ebook Epub Library value of the higher education system i net bridge has been one of south africas preferred electronic this volume sets out the challenges facing the education system in south Available at: http://www.interesjournals.org/ER[Google. This negative attitude emanates from the fact that learners have limited competence in the language therefore preventing them from actively participating in classroom activities (Usó Juan, 2006). Therefore, the primary school teacher in my context struggles to help learners achieve the expected proficiency. Some of the common classroom challenges faced by teachers include lack of teamwork, minimal personal time, working towards long term goals, arguments and student excuses, etc. This implies that the learners are basically out of luck because teachers have to use a fast pace to meet the predetermined curricular schedules which eventually impede effective classroom practices. Cummins, C. (2006). The Challenges Facing the Integration of ICT in Teaching and Learning Activities in South African Rural Secondary Schools Mlunghisi D. Mathevula University of Limpopo Email: mdmlunghisi@gmail.com ... teachers’ training in ICT use on the integration of ICT into the curriculum related activities by teachers. Lang. More importantly, the book focuses on the abnormalities in the education system as well as challenges and issues in the implementation of some of the new policies, and their impact. Teaching styles and learners’ achievement in Kiswahili language in secondary schools. South African teachers are spending a hefty amount of time on administrative tasks – time which could be better used on teaching in the classroom. One of the major problems is that the curriculum changes all the time. There are other prevailing conditions which pose a challenge to the teacher hence impeding learning. Teacher Education and the Challenge of Diversity in South Africa is part of a wider, cross-disciplinary School Integration research project initiated by the Human Sciences Research Council. (2010) reveals that English lessons have minimal learner participation because learners do not have the necessary competence which was not developed during their formative years. Teachers of other subjects keep changing the language of instruction from English to either Kiswahili or Mother tongue either because they are incompetent in English language or in order to have the learners understand the subject matter. The need to handle such differences in equitable ways poses new challenges for teachers and teacher education. Republic of Kenya Ministry of Education Science and Technology Syllabus. Underachievement in reading and writing skills and the implications in promoting life-long learning. Nairobi: Kenya Institute of Education. approach and the methods of assessment. Berlin, New York: M. de Gruyter. Benefits and challenges of lesson study: A case of teaching Physical Sciences in South Africa Ayodele Abosede Ogegbo and Estelle Gaigher Department of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, Faculty of Education, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa u15310142@tuks.co.za Trisha Salagaram Muthwii and Kioko (2004) acknowledge the fact that the pupil/textbook ratio is a significant measure of effective teaching because pupils heavily rely on text books. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. Ideally, mother tongue ought to be used to reinforce instruction as recommended by the policy (Ministry of Education, 2006). Problems Created by Overcrowded Classrooms . How are teacher … Curriculum 2005 provides such challenges. Toronto; New York: Canadian Scholars’ Press, Teachers College Press. The teachers and student teachers indicated specific needs in terms of further training and the content of training. literature review, document analysis, questionnaires, and classroom visits and observations. Home and school literacy practices in Africa: listening to inner voices. Kanga’hi, M., Indoshi, F. C., Okwach, T. O., and Osodo, J. However, ICT integration in education in South Africa has been severely The discourse of whole class teaching: a comparative study of Kenyan and Nigerian primary English lessons. In Africa, the introduction of computers into primary and secondary education is a recent phenomenon ... the study was to find out the challenges faced by the institution in teaching ICT. Usó Juan, E. (2006). Thirty high school English teachers (18 male and 12 female) were stratified randomly selected from all the educational districts in the city of Isfahan, Iran, to respond to the questionnaire. teachers are faced with challenges of overcrowded classrooms which include instructional, management, assessment and discipline problems ... similar challenges of overcrowded classrooms, in particular South Africa to make informed decisions about reform in public secondary schools. This is because learners are not afforded the chance to learn from their own familiar home language with a curriculum and pedagogy that recognizes their cultural setting. (2002). A quantitative research design was used to collect the data randomly from a sample of 100 secondary school teachers in the state of Melaka, Malaysia. Muchiri, M. N. (2009). Both teachers and parents perceive all the power to be vested in the school (Ngwaru, 2010). The data used in this Core among them is the limited classroom language opportunity for the learners to practice the language. Within the space of 13 years there has been 4 curriculums(OBE, RNCS, NCS, and currently Caps). Moreover, the policy demands of inclusive learning poses a challenge in the already swollen classrooms since it compromises individual attention because of the diverse needs of the learners vis-a-vis teachers workload (Glasson, 2009). Although the curriculum is designed to be covered in a year; teachers are under pressure from the district education officers to complete it by the month of May so as to embark on revision. - Often, young students show an ignoring and neglecting behavior as they do not know understand the importance of education. The salient characteristics of trained ineffective teachers in secondary schools in Kenya. Kenalemang Benjamin Molokoe and Monde Ndandani . Prog. Ministry of Education. Res. Thus, the global challenges in the transformation of higher education are exacerbated in South Africa given the changes observed and legislated during the … Teacher Education (2005). New Language Bearings in Africa: A Fresh Quest, 1st Edn. Other related constrained resources include overcrowded buildings, noisy and unsafe environments, poorly ventilated classrooms, water and sanitation facilities which are neither supportive to the learner nor the teachers thus impeding effective teaching. Sadtu says many schools in the country still don’t have toilets, libraries and laboratories. Glasson, T. (2009). These observations corroborate those of Ngwaru (2010) in a study done in Zimbabwe which pointed out that using an unfamiliar language as a medium of instruction is a major impediment to learning. The purpose of this study was to investigate the challenges facing effective use of learning resources in public secondary schools in Bureti The learners’ negative attitude toward English poses a great barrier for effective teaching. Curriculum 2005 provides such challenges. However, multigrade teachers, who need to plan and prepare for more than one grade per lesson, face special challenges. This report led to the development of the National Policy Framework for Teacher Education and Development which has as its aim to attempt to address the need for suitably qualified educators in South Africa. Getting Heard: (re)Claiming Performance Space in Kenya. Grades 10 to 12) at one of the high schools in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. This minimal learner participation can be linked to the learners’ negative attitude toward the subject which eventually leads to significant levels of underperformance in the English language. Additionally, selective teacher attention creates feelings of discrimination and as a result of all these prevailing conditions in the class, learners find school not an interesting place to be hence explaining reasons why some children leave home but do not reach school. So, teachers who have parallel skills in teaching in the face-to-face classroom are unfortunately crippled in this process of on-going digital shifting. challenges facing the teaching and learning of physical education in primary schools in bwiri/nanguba zone, samia sub-county, kenya sirimba lukhalango edward reg.no: e55/ce/22882/2010 a research project submitted to the school of educationin partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of … This situation results in minimal exposure to the language (Abdi and Hardman, 2007). Int. Njogu (2008) points out that most parents from disadvantaged socioeconomic conditions are preoccupied with challenges of trying to make ends meet, leaving too little room for supporting their learners at home. South African teachers are currently trying to come to terms with an ideology of outcomes-based education, new learning areas, new content, and the implications of calls for “integration”, Dev. [S.l.]. This was because the purpose of the study was to find out the Njogu, K. (2008). I am going to talk about the experience in a Kenyan primary school where I teach because most of these challenges are contextual. Copyright: © 2017 Anyiendah. Muthwii, Kioko. Given that language learning requires a lot of exposure as postulated by Cummins (2006), the teacher of English is left with the sole burden of helping learners develop competence in English within a 35-min lesson because the language outside the classroom and at home is majorly Kiswahili in towns and other local languages in rural areas. In Africa, ... the study was to find out the challenges faced by the institution in teaching ICT. Teaching in an overcrowded classroom can be frustrating, overwhelming and stressful. Ngwaru, J. M., and Opoku-Amankwa, K. (2010). The study has revealed that the black South African learners in ex-Model C schools are faced by numerous challenges owing to their limited English proficiency, and that they do not meet the requirements to pass their grades. Grades 10 to 12) at one of the high schools in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Such uninterested and unmotivated students are a real challenge. For all official information and updates regarding COVID-19, visit the South African Department of Health's website at www.sacoronavirus.co.za. c. (2013). The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Addressing a Sadtu conference in Kempton Park, Johannesburg, Sadtu president Magope Maphila says the results of the survey have vindicated them. challenges facing the teaching and learning of physical education in primary schools in bwiri/nanguba zone, samia sub-county, kenya sirimba lukhalango edward reg.no: e55/ce/22882/2010 a research project submitted to the school of educationin partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of masters in SAGE Open 1, 8–10. New teachers bring energy and enthusiasm to their classrooms, but also a specific set of needs. school English teachers’ perceptions of the challenges and barriers preventing teachers from using ICT in the classroom. Box 392, Pretoria, South Africa ABSTRACT Information Communication Technology (ICT) integration in the classroom is often viewed as a panacea towards resolving South Africa’s education challenges. Particularly if you are learning English outside of an English-speaking country. Finally, in my context, there is a manifestation of the underlying negative and dominant coercive relations of power. Teachers in my context face numerous challenges in and out of the classroom. Training duration is too short (3-4 years vs 3 days). Whereas experienced teachers might bristle at receiving classroom management tips, model lesson plans, and constructive feedback on instruction, new teachers appear to long for such supports. Improving Student Achievement: A Practical Guide to Assessment for Learning. South African Democratic Teachers Union (Sadtu) says overcrowding in classrooms and a lack of infrastructure at schools are some of the major challenges teachers are facing.. Sadtu says many schools in the country still don’t have toilets, libraries and laboratories. I saw progress in an eight-year-old boy who, starting with a low grasp of the English alphabet, was reading a short story in English within four weeks. South African teachers are spending a hefty amount of time on administrative tasks – time which could be better used on teaching in the classroom. The National Curriculum Statement DoE 2004:6) contains policy statements for booklet (learning and teaching. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. There are many challenges being a teacher in South Africa today. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. b. Gathumbi, A. This is reflected by elevated school dropout rates and suboptimal annual pass rates in various grades (Grades 7–12). Keywords: challenges, English as a second language, adequate training, innovativeness, teachers in Sub-Saharan context, Citation: Anyiendah MS (2017) Challenges Faced by Teachers When Teaching English in Public Primary Schools in Kenya. However, their training and innovative skills is a necessary but not sufficient condition for effective learning. 24, 295–307. J. Lang. (2010). when introducing ICT in the classrooms. A more recent research conducted by Tella et al. Without addressing teacher concerns about integrating IT in the classroom, we risk creating a generation of students ill-prepared for a digital future. Drawing from a more recent study by Ngwaru and Opoku-Amankwa (2010), it is arguable that learners who are socioeconomically disadvantaged face significant consequences in learning. However, the reality is that there is continued use of English which is an unfamiliar language as a medium of instruction. It is only when this attitude is changed that substantial learning will take place. Papers on Language and Culture: An African Perspective. Teachers in the South African education system: An economic perspective Paula Louise Armstrong Dissertation presented for the degree Doctor of Philosophy (Economics) in the Faculty of Economic and Management Science at Stellenbosch University Supervisor: Prof Servaas van der Berg Evidence has been collected Front. Literacy Practices at Homee and School for Rural Children in Zimbabwe: The Real Pedagogical Dilemas. In lower primary, there is a mismatch between language policy and the actual practice in my context. South African Democratic Teachers Union (Sadtu) says overcrowding in classrooms and a lack of infrastructure at schools are some of the major challenges teachers are facing. Educ. 'We need to look at creative ways in which teachers can teach effectively in those conditions.' An overcrowded classroom presents challenges that can feel nearly impossible to overcome, even to the most effective teachers. This book is about challenges and issues facing the school system of South Africa; specifically the harsh realities facing schools. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Challenges of Classroom Management to Effective SocializationThis investigation has found that the beginning English teachers in Pakistani colleges have many challenges related to classroom management, which tend to lead them towards ineffective socialization with the increase in dissatisfaction and poor performance. Kodero, H. M. N., Misigo, B. L., Owino, E. A., and Simiyu, C. K. (2011). 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Unfortunately, this behavior is deeply rooted in the teaching system that teachers seem to be unaware of its impact on teaching and learning process. It also exposed that comparatively. Educ. Teaching and learning resources greatly influence standard and quality of education since they affect the teaching and learning process at all levels. This creates anxiety and stalls effective classroom participation (Kodero et al., 2011). Abdi, K., and Hardman, F. (2007). Nairobi: Twaweza Communications. approach and the methods of assessment. Pract. Academic progress varied in each child I worked with, but progress was always visible. For instance, English language learners in African countries like Nigeria, Ghana, Liberia, Zambia, Malawi, and some other African countries face a lot of challenges because English … Relationship between students’ perspectives on the secondary school English curriculum and their academic achievement in Kenya. An Investigation of the Challenges Affecting Teachers’ Classroom Assessment Practices by Mantsose Jane Sethusha submitted in accordance with the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education in the subject Curriculum Studies at the University of South Africa Supervisor: Professor MW Lumadi June 2012 This chapter explores the Whiles phase 1 of the study was to get the challenges faced in the classroom. South African teachers are dedicated and work hard to educate children under difficult circumstances. Challenges of Classroom Management to Effective SocializationThis investigation has found that the beginning English teachers in Pakistani colleges have many challenges related to classroom management, which tend to lead them towards ineffective socialization with the increase in dissatisfaction and poor performance. For instance, there are some comprehension passages which use illustrations that learners cannot relate to. In upper primary, the learners’ only opportunity to use English language is limited to the daily 35-min English lesson (KIE, 2002). A wide variety of demands that are posed to teachers with regard to the unique South African context were identified, for example lack of support, lack of training, high teacher/child ratios etc. Therefore, the use of such English expression is a typical disregard of learners’ sociocultural experience which will more often than not inhibit learning. Introduction In this paper, I discuss the challenges faced by English as second language (ESL) teachers in real classroom situation in East Africa despite their possible adequate training and innovativeness. Many researchers acknowledge the fact that the English primary curriculum in my context is overloaded making it a major hurdle for effective classroom practice (Gathumbi, 2013; Kanga’hi and Indoshi, 2012). USA: VDM Verlag Dr. Muller. The pointers below mention the challenges faced by teachers every day in the classroom. South African teachers are currently trying to come to terms with an ideology of outcomes-based education, new learning areas, new content, and the implications of calls for “integration”, Conflicts in schools over race, fees or language frequently make headlines in South Africa. Author MA is the sole contributor to this work. 21, 1–15. Mundy, K. E. (2008). Challenges facing teachers. Therefore, in a constrained textbook environment, it is difficult for a teacher to implement effective practices. Educ., 05 May 2017 The nature of technology as a socially embedded medium Ascough (2002:17) is of the opinion that ‘good education requires an awareness of the opportunities and limitations of the mode of education’. Nairobi: Authorhouse. (2006). This study looks at the challenges facing educators in implementing the National Curriculum Statement for Further Education and Training (i.e. Educ. Given that English is either a second or third language to some learners, most of them have difficulties in comprehending its structures. This study looks at the challenges facing educators in implementing the National Curriculum Statement for Further Education and Training (i.e. Carlton South, VIC: Curriculum Corporation. Some other countries they speak of 1 is to 15 and 1 is to 20. Current Trends in the Development and Teaching of the Four Language Skills. Beukes (2006) notes the absence of clear guidance for the combination of grades; inconsistent learner attendance; a The National Curriculum Statement DoE 2004:6) contains policy statements for booklet (learning and teaching. Tella, J., Indoshi, F. C., and Othuon, L. A. *Correspondence: Mary Susan Anyiendah, maryanyiendah@yahoo.com, Front. For instance, in the classroom setting, power is expressed in the sitting arrangement where all learners sit facing the teacher who stands at the front, teacher’s facial expressions, voice pitch, and teachers’ selective attention to some learners leaving out others impedes effective learning. Despite Educational Research. The Challenges Facing Beginning Teachers N ew teachers bring varying backgrounds, motivations, experiences, and preparation levels to their initial teaching experience. Whiles phase 1 of the study was to get the challenges faced in the classroom. Such conflicts reflect the multifaceted issue of learner diversity, encompassing racial, class, gender, religious, linguistic, physical and other differences. implications in the South African context, followed by the opportunities technology offers with specific reference to theological education. b. 4, 2. 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Fresh Quest, 1st Edn to inner voices challenges for teachers and parents perceive all the power to be in... Updates regarding COVID-19, visit the South African schools Keshnee Padayachee University of South Africa Administrators... Language policy and the actual practice in my context stalls effective classroom participation ( Kodero et al., 2011.... Et al., 2011 ) Kodero, H. M. N., Misigo, B. L. Owino. Getting Heard: ( re ) Claiming Performance space in Kenya these challenges are contextual out of creative... Issues facing the school ( Ngwaru, J. M., Indoshi, F. C., and preparation to! Developments in South Africa, the reality is that the Curriculum changes all the power to be,. English teacher in South Africa ( SA ), the education system and educational face. Is strenuous and stalls effective classroom participation ( Kodero et al., 2011 ) unmotivated students are a real.! At creative ways in which teachers can teach effectively in those conditions. Ministry of education, 2006.... 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And laboratories, teachers College Press Science and Technology Syllabus prevailing conditions which pose a challenge the. Of instruction experience in a Kenyan primary school where I teach because most of these.! Sadtu conference in Kempton Park, Johannesburg, Sadtu president Magope Maphila the. Class teaching: a Fresh Quest, 1st Edn ’ Press, teachers College Press by.! Impossible to overcome, even to the teacher hence impeding learning, T. O., and classroom visits and.... Yahoo.Com, Front underachievement in Reading and writing skills and the actual practice in my context face challenges... Classrooms, but it is only when this attitude is changed that substantial learning take... A Practical Guide to Assessment for learning involvement in children ’ s.. Condition for effective learning space challenges faced by teachers in south african classrooms pdf Kenya barrier for effective learning is changed that substantial learning take! F. ( 2007 ) issues facing the school system of South Africa ; specifically the realities! African schools Keshnee Padayachee University of South Africa students ’ perspectives on secondary! This study looks at the challenges facing Beginning teachers N ew teachers bring energy enthusiasm... When this attitude is changed that substantial learning will take place to talk about experience! Implications in promoting life-long learning the implications in promoting life-long learning 15 and 1 to... Hence impeding learning ) at one of the underlying negative and dominant coercive relations of power the teachers and facing... Styles and learners ’ negative attitude toward English poses a great barrier for teaching... Learners to practice the language - Often, young students show an ignoring and neglecting behavior they... And dominant coercive relations of power, Owino, E. A., and preparation levels to their classrooms but! Motivations, experiences, and Hardman, 2007 ) phase 1 of the primary teacher! Is that there is a necessary but not sufficient condition for effective learning learners achieve the expected proficiency about and... Performance space in Kenya the expected proficiency and issues facing the school Ngwaru... Rates in various grades ( grades 7–12 ) institution in teaching ICT their classrooms, but progress was visible. At www.sacoronavirus.co.za COVID-19, visit the South African teachers are dedicated and work hard to educate children under difficult.... Have vindicated them November 2016 ; Accepted: 11 April 2017 ; Published: 05 May 2017 questionnaires and... Study looks at the challenges faced by teachers every day in the classroom when this is... The terms of the study was to find out the challenges faced in the school system of South.... To help learners achieve the expected proficiency a Sadtu conference in Kempton Park, Johannesburg Sadtu... As recommended by the policy ( Ministry of education, who need to and... Also a specific set of needs Often, young students show an ignoring and neglecting behavior as do! In Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa ; specifically the harsh facing... In implementing the National Curriculum Statement DoE 2004:6 ) contains policy statements for booklet ( learning and teaching don! 2007 ) teachers, who need to handle such differences in equitable ways poses challenges. Has been 4 curriculums ( OBE, RNCS, NCS, and,! Who have parallel skills in teaching ICT use illustrations that learners can not relate to about the experience in Kenyan! Suboptimal annual pass rates in various grades ( grades 7–12 ) says the results of the Commons... Homee and school for Rural children in Zimbabwe: the Changing Role of Administrators information. The real Pedagogical Dilemas Curriculum Statement DoE 2004:6 ) contains policy statements for booklet learning... F. C., Okwach, T. O., and Othuon, L. a issues facing the (! Bring energy and enthusiasm to their initial teaching experience a medium of instruction the teachers Owino, A.... Parallel skills in teaching ICT space in Kenya teach effectively in those conditions. Further education and training (.. Parental involvement in children ’ s learning which is an unfamiliar language as a medium of instruction improving Student:... Lower primary, there is a mismatch between language policy and the in... Such context can be quite challenging to the language ( Abdi and Hardman, F. C. and... And teaching of the study was to get the challenges facing Beginning teachers N ew teachers bring and! F. ( 2007 ) the terms of the major problems is that the Curriculum changes all power!, J. M., and classroom visits and observations, NCS, and Hardman 2007!, Indoshi, F. ( 2007 ) learning and teaching digital shifting COVID-19, visit the African! Guide to Assessment for learning major problems is that the Curriculum changes all the time ideally, mother tongue to... 2006 ) disability and how they try to overcome these challenges are contextual academic progress in! 7–12 ) whiles phase 1 of the creative Commons Attribution License ( CC by ), Received 24! 15 and 1 is to 15 and 1 is to 15 and 1 is to.... Culture: an African Perspective education and training ( i.e skills is a necessary but not sufficient for... Is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the high schools in Vhembe District, Limpopo,... How they try to overcome these challenges are contextual in which teachers can teach effectively those.